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Glossary - E

Econometric Models

A system of simultaneous equations for forecasting, based on mutual dependency among the variables used.

Economic Speed

That speed of a means of transport which produces the best possible financial result for the owner. Such speed should not be in excess of the maximum or minimum output allowed for the engine(s).

Economy of Scale

A phenomenon which encourages the production of larger volumes of a commodity to reduce its unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a greater quantity.


See Electronic Data Interchange.


See Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport.


See Electronic Data Processing.


See Equipment Damage Report.


See Equipment Interchange Receipt.

Electronic Data Interchange

Abbreviation: E.D.I.

The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.

Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport

Abbreviations: E.D.I.F.A.C.T.

The ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.

Electronic Data Processing

Abbreviation: E.D.P.

The computerized handling of information e.g. business data.


Equipment used to discharge some bulk cargoes such as grain which is removed from the hold by a continuous line of buckets or by suction and carried on a conveyor belt to store.


1) A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports.
2) Refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof, and to or from any area of point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity type of class of cargo duly tendered (aircargo).

Emergency Medical Service

Abbreviation: E.M.S.

Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.


See Emergency Medical Service.

End Door

Load bearing panel located in an end wall, arranged to open or close an aperture having prescribed minimum width and height.

End Frame

Assembly at either end of a container consisting of two top and two bottom corner fittings, two corner posts and a top and a bottom transverse member.

Notes: This commonly used term overlaps with the term "base structure" to the extent that the bottom corner fitting and the bottom end transverse member appear in both.

The term also includes the term "corner structure" - an assembly consisting of a top and a bottom corner fitting and a corner post.

Caution should be used in the employment of these terms to avoid possible confusion.

End Wall

End closure of a freight container bounded by and affixed to, but not including the end frame.

Note: This is assumed, unless otherwise stated, to be fully load bearing to the minimum extent required for the type op container in question.

Reference to "equivalent structures" means structures having the same strength as end walls but not necessarily having the same weatherproofness.

Reference is sometimes made to the "rear" or "front" end of a container. The "rear" end is normally taken to mean the door end and the "front" is taken to mean the end opposite to the door end. Such terms should be avoided where a containers has similar ends if it is necessary to differentiate between the two ends then this should be done by reference to some feature which clearly distinguishes one end from another (for example features such as markings, plates, discharge facilities, etc).


The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee s signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.


Material resources necessary to facilitate the transport and handling of cargo. Transport equipment does under the given circumstances not have the ability to move by its own propulsion. E.G.: Sea container, trailer, unit load device, pallet.

Equipment Damage Report

Abbreviation: E.D.R.

Written statement concerning damage to equipment, based on a physical inspection.

Equipment Interchange Receipt

Abbreviation: E.I.R.

Physical inspection and transfer receipt.


Document issued by a party interested in the purchase of goods specified therin and indicating particular, desirable conditions regarding delivery terms, etc., addressed to a prospective supplier with a view to obtaining an offer.


Termination of a certain period.

Estimated Time of Arrival

Abbreviation: E.T.A.

The expected date and time of arrival in a certain (air)port.

Estimated Time of Departure

Abbreviation: E.T.D.

The expected date and time when a certain (air)port is left.


See Estimated Time of Arrival.


See Estimated Time of Departure.

European Article Numbering Association

Abbreviation: E.A.N.

An international body responsible for administering the European Article Numbering system. It has affiliates in many countries such as: CCG in West Germany, DCC in Japan, ANA in the United Kingdom. Note: The North American body responsible for the Uniform Product Code (UPC) coding (UPC is technically a subset of EAN) is the Uniform Code Council.

European Pallet Pool

Pool for the exchange of standard size pallets (so-called Europallets) in European cargo traffic, formed in 1961 by a number of European Rail administrators.

European Zone Charge

Abbreviation: E.Z.C.

A charge for inland haulage transport in case of carrier haulage in Europe.

Even Keel

Said of a vessel which is balanced in such a way that the draft forward and aft is the same as the draft in the midship of the vessel on both sides.


An occurrence.

Ex Works (...named place)

Abbreviation E.X.W.

The seller is responsible for matking the goods available at his premises (i.e. works, warehouse or factory). He is not responsible for loading the goods in the vehicle, provided by the buyer, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears the full cost and risk of loss and damage involved in bringing the goods from there to the desired destination.

Exceptions Clause

See Exemptions Clause.


Going over the prescribed amount or degree e.g. excess luggage is luggage of which the weight is over the weight for free carriage.

Exchange Rate

The rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another, usually expressed as the value of the one in terms of the other.

Exemptions Clause

A clause in a contract, which relieves the carrier s responsibility for certain events. Synonym: Exceptions Clause.


Likely to occur or appear.

Expedite Baggage

Luggage, not accompanied by a passenger and not covered by an Air Waybill (aircargo). Synonym: Rush Baggage.


The "rushing" or "chasing" of production or purchase orders which are needed in less than the normal lead time.

Expendable Pallet

See Disposable Pallet. Synonym: One Way Pallet.


Costs paid out in connection with booking of cargo and arranging transport, e.g. commission.

Export Licence

Document granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time.

Export Packer

Company, packing goods for export.


Summary or copy of something written, e.g. used in connection with the log book.


See Ex Works (...named place).


See European Zone Charge.